What needs to change to achieve access to sanitation for all by 2030? What needs to change to achieve access to sanitation for all by 2030?

Andrés Hueso, Senior Policy Analyst for Sanitation at WaterAid, discusses the opportunities and challenges involved in global prioritisation of sanitation and water for all.

Would the poor slum dweller contribute financially for water supply and why?

Following the publication of research from 23 slums of Kolkata, India, author Indranil De considers the willingness of different ethnic groups to pay for better water supply and the factors that affect this.

A new approach for studying the operation of a secondary sedimentation tank (SST)

Lucio Pezza, expert on the management, control and maintenance of water and wastewater treatment plants, covers some key concerns of his new article on the operation of secondary sedimentation  tanks (SSTs).

Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking.

Reverse Osmosis and Removal of Minerals from Drinking Water

Reverse Osmosis will generally remove salt, manganese, iron, flouride, lead, and calcium (Binnie et. al., 2002).  Most mineral constituents of water are physically larger than water molecules and they are trapped by the semi-permeable membrane and removed from drinking water when filtered through a RO (AllAboutWater.org, 2004).  Meanwhile, consumers are concerned about the removal of minerals from their drinking water.

Water-based diseases

Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY (diability-adjusted life year)  global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries.

Sedimentation Processes

Sedimentation is one of several methods for application prior to filtration: other options include dissolved air flotation and some methods of filtration. Generically, such solids-liquid separation processes are sometimes referred to as clarification processes. There is a variety of methods for applying sedimentation and include: horizontal flow, radial flow, inclined plate, ballasted floc and floc blanket sedimentation.

Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use.

Most industries produce some wet waste although recent trends in the developed world have been to minimise such production or recycle such waste within the production process. However, many industries remain dependent on processes that produce wastewaters.

Sustainability in Water Supply

This article serves as a general reference for sustainable water supply systems. The scope remains global and macroscopic, though there may be regional differences depending on the water sources available in a particular setting. What is considered “sustainable” in one location may be a challenge to sustainability elsewhere.

Simple Options to Remove Turbidity

The health consequences of inadequate water and sanitation services include an estimated 4 billion cases of diarrhea and 1.9 million deaths each year, mostly among young children in developing countries.  Diarrheal diseases lead to decreased food intake and nutrient absorption, malnutrition, reduced resistance to infection, and impaired physical growth and cognitive development.  Since 1996, a large body of published work has proven the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality through household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) at reducing diarrheal disease.  However, not all of these interventions remove the turbidity that causes water to look dirty.  Although the following options are not proven to reduce diarrheal disease incidence on their own, they can be used to pre-treat water to reduce turbidity before the use of household water treatment products.  These options mechanically (through filtration) or chemically (through flocculation and settling of suspended material) remove particles and reduce turbidity.  These pre-treatment methods may also increase the efficacy of household water treatment products by removing contaminants that interfere with disinfection and physical filtration processes. 

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