Global Trends & Challenges in Water Science, Research and Management Global Trends & Challenges in Water Science, Research and Management

The global water challenge is unprecedented. Climate change, rapid urbanisation, increasing consumption and demand for food and energy, and changing land use, will leave few countries and communities unaffected. The demand for water and sanitation services is greater than it has ever been, and water has never been higher on the agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) not only provide a framework to address water challenges, they put water at the centre of the global agenda on sustainable development. This presents opportunities for the water sector to develop innovative solutions and scale-up best practice. Water management is a complex multi-disciplinary topic, and water professionals come in many different shapes. One of the unique strengths of IWA is bringing together experts from across the globe and specialisations into communities of practice, IWA’s Specialist Groups. Connecting people from across disciplines and across national boundaries accelerates the science, innovation and practice that can make a difference in addressing water challenges and pushes the sustainability agenda. The Global Trends and Challenges in Water Science, Research and Management compendium draws upon the expertise of IWA’s specialist groups who have identified the hot topics, innovations and global trends in water science, research and management that will have impact in solving global water challenges. The compendium highlights a diversity of approaches, from detailed technical and scientific aspects to more integrated approaches.

© 2016 IWA and the IWA Specialist Groups and Clusters

Developing countries See all

KfW Water Symposium 2009 Financing Sanitation KfW Water Symposium 2009 Financing Sanitation

The central objective of the International Year of Sanitation was to put the global community on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals MDG sanitation target.However, one year later, it is still difficult to keep sanitation high on the agenda, while practical action is required to encourage demand driven and sustainable solutions. With the support of the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation and together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the French Development Agency AFD, KfW organised a two day Symposium to specifically address ways in which financing institutions can better promote the achievement of the MDG sanitation target. More than 70 experts from various backgrounds explored the challenges of sanitation and discussed ways to further develop innovative financing mechanisms for improved hygiene, sanitation and wastewater management in low-income countries.

Four thematic areas were tackled by detailed background papers, presentations and high-level open floor discussions. Session 1: Financing Change in Personal Hygiene Behaviour and Demand Creation for Sanitation Motivation. This section contains a rapid review of past experiences in developed countries and the evolution of methods used in developing countries to change hygiene and sanitation behaviors, including successes and failures. Relative costs and impacts, the role of institutional arrangements and actors, as well as approaches for linking hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation (so called software investments) with hardware investments are examined. Finally, considerations and opportunities for development banks and other financing agencies to become engaged in the scale-up of hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation approaches which have demonstrated success are presented. Session 2: Targeting the Poor with Facilities and Improved Services Motivation. The interventions that can help poor people to access sanitation goods and services are examined. The focus is on three types of interventions: the use of low-cost technologies, the use of micro-credit and the use of targeted public finance (or subsidies) to reduce the funding gap that poor people face to meet the capital and recurrent costs of sustainable sanitation. Targeted public finance, performance assessment, effectiveness, sustainability, public funding strategies and performance are analysed. Session 3: Urban Spaces – How to Provide and Finance Service to Peri-urban Areas. New approaches to meet sanitation challenges arising from absolute population growth and rapid urbanization are examined from a technical point of view. Simplified solutions and semicentralised supply and treatment systems are examined in detail and with the help of examples. Session 4: The Potential Role of Utilities in Sanitation Provision for Peri-urban Areas and Poor Target Groups. The question why sanitation service provision by local government authorities is poor is addressed. Examples of how water supply and sanitation utilities are being encouraged to support peri-urban areas and poor target groups with the provision of sanitation services are provided. The difficulties of utilities to provide piped water and sewers in a commercially viable manner is addressed. The role of local government authorities, of the regulatory framework, of education and public awareness is highlighted. A theme that appeared in all four sessions concerned the process of project design by development banks. Recommendations to improve it in order to best tackle sanitation issues were as follows: - address the entire sanitation chain - plan for all urban areas including informal housing areas and slums - ensure the sustainable operation of all sections of the sanitation chain (long-term effectiveness).

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On Target for People and Planet: Setting and Achieving Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals On Target for People and Planet: Setting and Achieving Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals

IWMI scientists urge realistic targets, wise investment choices and sustainable water resources development while building resilient ecosystems. This 56-page IWMI book, illustrated with case studies and examples, provides critical analyses of how national SDG targets can be defined and met through the most current evidence-based water policies. IWMI, which recently adopted a new strategy to deliver a “water-secure world,” plans to produce a series of annual reports that synthesize thinking on major water issues.

The book contains examples of IWMI’s work in tackling complex issues, such as: - IWMI conducted pilot tests in Uzbekistan’s Ferghana Valley to “bank” winter water flows released for hydropower into underground aquifers and later extract the stored water for dry-season irrigation. Such strategies may prove to be a pragmatic way to reverse damage caused by groundwater overpumping, and to deal with competing demands for water, energy and food. - Despite today’s focus on participatory water-use management, IWMI’s research shows that women, minorities and the poor often are left out of local decision-making. In such situations, women revert to “stealing” the water they need for domestic use and crops. - Humans generate millions of tons of solid and liquid waste every day. IWMI and its partners are testing innovative, low-cost human waste-to-fertilizer models in 10 cities across the globe. Implementing such solutions is a key to achieving SDG health and environment goals in low-income countries. You can download a free copy of On Target for People and Planet: Setting and Achieving Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals here: www.iwmi.org/sdg-book If you would prefer a paper copy, please email James Clarke at j.clarke@cgair.org and we will dispatch direct to you.

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Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand? Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand?

The Third African Sanitation and Hygiene Conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda in July 2011. It was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, and the African Ministers Council on Water. The meeting attracted extraordinary interest: over 1000 people registered and nearly 900 people attended from a total of 67 countries, including representatives of 42 African countries. The content of AfricaSan 3 was aligned with the needs of countries as defined in country preparation meetings which took place in advance. AfricaSan 3 looked to address the country needs and to commitments and country action planning. Different groups (ministers, civil society, local government, utilities, and donors) committed to actions to support the goals of AfricaSan. The goal of the AfricaSan process is to support countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal, (MDG) for sanitation and hygiene.

Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand? takes stock of progress made by African countries through the AfricaSan process since 2008 and the progress needed to meet the MDG on sanitation by 2015 and beyond. This book addresses priorities which have been identified by African countries as the key elements which need to be addressed in order to accelerate progress. Reviews progress on implementing the eThekwini Declaration to meet the MDG for sanitation and progress generally in Africa. It analyses what is needed to accelerate the rate of access to sanitation in Africa. Shares advances in the evidence base on sanitation and hygiene in Africa to be able to assist decision-makers to overcome key blockages in implementing large-scale sanitation and hygiene programs. Raises the profile of sanitation and hygiene as a determinant of sustainable development in order to strengthen leadership and advocacy for sustained sanitation and behavior changes. This book is essential reading for government staff from Ministries responsible for sanitation, sector stakeholders working in NGOs, CSOs and agencies with a focus on sanitation and hygiene and water and Sanitation specialists. It is also suitable for Masters courses in water and sanitation and for researchers and the donor community.

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Health issues See all

Manual on the Human Rights to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation for Practitioners Manual on the Human Rights to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation for Practitioners

The Manual highlights the human rights principles and criteria in relation to drinking water and sanitation. It explains the international legal obligations in terms of operational policies and practice that will support the progressive realisation of universal access.

The Manual introduces a human rights perspective that will add value to informed decision making in the daily routine of operators, managers and regulators. It also encourages its readership to engage actively in national dialogues where the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are translated into national and local policies, laws and regulations. Creating such an enabling environment is, in fact, only the first step in the process towards progressive realisation. Allocation of roles and responsibilities is the next step, in an updated institutional and operational set up that helps apply a human rights lens to the process of reviewing and revising the essential functions of operators, service providers and regulators.

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Policy & governance See all

Integrated River Basin Governance Integrated River Basin Governance

Integrated River Basin Governance - Learning from International Experience is designed to help practitioners implement integrated approaches to river basin management. (IRBM). It aims to help the coming generation of senior university students learn how to design IRBM and it provides current researchers and the broader water community with a resource on river basin management.

Drawing on both past and present river basin and valley scale catchment management examples from around the world, the book develops an integration framework for river basin management. Grounded in the theory and literature of natural resources management and planning, the thrust of the book is to assist policy and planning, rather than extend knowledge of hydrology, biophysical modelling or aquatic ecology. Providing a classification of river basin organizations and their use, the book also covers fundamental issues related to implementation: - decision-making - institutions and organizations - information management - participation and awareness - legal and economic issues - integration and coordination processes - building human capacity. Integrated River Basin Governance focuses on the social, economic, organizational and institutional arrangements of river basin management. Methods are outlined for implementing strategic and regional approaches to river basin management, noting the importance of context and other key elements which have been shown to impede success. The book includes a range of tools for river basin governance methods, derived from real life experiences in both developed and developing countries. The successes and failures of river basin management are discussed, and lessons learned from both are presented.

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Utility / network management See all

Benchmarking Para Servicios de Agua Benchmarking Para Servicios de Agua

Benchmarking has become a key tool in the water industry to promote and achieve performance targets for utilities. The use of this tool for performance improvement through systematic search and adaptation of leading practices, has expanded globally during the past decade. Many ongoing projects worldwide aim to address different needs and objectives, in varying contexts, with outstanding results and impact. Benchmarking Water Services provides valuable information to everyone interested in benchmarking in the water industry. The text is aimed at utilities considering joining a benchmarking project, experienced practitioners in charge of organizing a benchmarking exercise, consultants, regulators and researchers. The document is presented with a clear practice oriented approach and can be used as a how-to-benchmark guide presented from different perspectives (participants, organizers, supervising bodies). Readers will gain practical insight on real life benchmarking practices and will benefit from the experiences gained in some of the leading benchmarking projects of the water industry (including the IWA-WSAA benchmarking efforts, the European Benchmarking Co-operation and the several benchmarking projects carried out in Austria and Central Europe). The manual also presents the new IWA Benchmarking Framework, which aims to harmonize the terms used to describe benchmarking and performance indicators practices in the water industry, guaranteeing a more fluent and efficient communication.

This Manual of Best Practice is edited by the IWA Specialist Group on Benchmarking and Performance Assessment, and co-published by AWWA and IWA Publishing. ----- Praise for Benchmarking Water Services: "The continual trend of conceptual to specifics throughout the book provides for an educational experience each time the book is either casually perused or carefully studied." "The authors (Cabrera, Haskins and Fritiz) diligently pursue the focus of improvement." "Benchmarking Water Services is an in depth and practical ‘must have’ guide for any utility currently engaged in or planning to develop a benchmarking process" - Gregory M. Baird (2012) Benchmarking: An International Journal 19:2.

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Handbook on Process Safety Integrity for Utility Operators Handbook on Process Safety Integrity for Utility Operators

This handbook is intended for utility operators to explain the process safety integrity issues with the focus on maintaining the long term sustainability, efficiency and effectiveness of the utility assets. It is hoped this handbook provides the basis of the essentials for managers and key engineers responsible for the ownership , operation and maintenance of assets in the utility sector.

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Wastewater, reuse & sludge See all

Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged aerated biofilters. For all the systems, the book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines.

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Anaerobic Reactors Anaerobic Reactors

Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

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Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: - microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment - reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics - conversion of organic and inorganic matter - sedimentation - aeration. The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books of the series are built.

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Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume I Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume I

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required.

This comprehensive book presents in a clear and informative way the basic principles of biological wastewater treatment, including theory and practice, and covering conception, design and operation. In order to ensure the practical and didactic view of the book, 371 illustrations, 322 summary tables and 117 examples are included. All major wastewater treatment processes are covered by full and interlinked design examples which are built up throughout the book, from the determination of wastewater characteristics, the impact of discharge into rivers and lakes, the design of several wastewater treatment processes and the design of sludge treatment and disposal units. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two: (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal. As well as being an ideal textbook, Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions is an important reference for practising professionals such as engineers, biologists, chemists and environmental scientists, acting in consulting companies, water authorities and environmental agencies.

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Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume II Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume II

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required.

This comprehensive book presents in a clear and informative way the basic principles of biological wastewater treatment, including theory and practice, and covering conception, design and operation. In order to ensure the practical and didactic view of the book, 371 illustrations, 322 summary tables and 117 examples are included. All major wastewater treatment processes are covered by full and interlinked design examples which are built up throughout the book, from the determination of wastewater characteristics, the impact of discharge into rivers and lakes, the design of several wastewater treatment processes and the design of sludge treatment and disposal units. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two: (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal. As well as being an ideal textbook, Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions is an important reference for practising professionals such as engineers, biologists, chemists and environmental scientists, acting in consulting companies, water authorities and environmental agencies.

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Water resources / environment See all

Coastal Lagoons in Europe: Integrated Water Resource Strategies Coastal Lagoons in Europe: Integrated Water Resource Strategies

Lagoons represent nearly 13% of the shoreline globally and around 5% in Europe. Coastal lagoons are shallow water bodies separated from the ocean by a barrier (e.g., narrow spit), connected at least intermittently to the ocean by one or more restricted inlets, and usually geographically oriented parallel to the shore-line. Coastal lagoons are flexible and usually able to cope with environmental change, yet nowadays they are under threat. This is partly due to climate change impacts (for example, sea-level rise and hydro-meteorological extreme events) but also due to more direct human activities and pressures.

The book focuses on addressing these challenges through integrated management strategies seen in a land-sea and science-stakeholder-policy perspective. Pan-European management challenges are seen from the context of the perspectives of Policy, Environment and Modelling. Four case study lagoons in different geographical locations in Europe provide examples of some of the practical experiences and results around these challenges. Possible impacts on drainage basins and lagoons are introduced through integrated scenarios which were developed through a multi-science and land-lagoon science perspective combined with interactions and contributions from stakeholders and citizens. Issues around climate change impacts on environmental conditions in both drainage basins and lagoons are also included. The book derives from a collaborative EC-funded project entitled Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Zone Management in European Lagoons in the Context of Climate Change comprising nine partner institutes with a wide diversity in the scientific disciplines covered. Contents: Challenges in the Policy-Environment-Modelling management context; The LAGOONS project in a management challenge context; The challenges in context of science-policy interface; The use of modelling tools to assess river basin environmental impacts; The challenges to improve integrated catchment-to-coast modelling in the context of climate change; Socio-economical and environmental scenarios for 2030; Engagement of local communities and Integrated scenarios; Catchment-to-coast integrated scenarios; Lagoons impact integrated scenarios; Integrated scenarios; The scenarios under the context of climate change (2030 and beyond); Lagoons response using key bio-indicators & and implications on ecological status; Catchment-to-coast climate-change impact scenarios; Coastal areas management perspective; Marine ecosystem services; Recommendations and strategies  pan-European view for coastal lagoons; Case studies  facts and figures: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia) and Tyligulskyi lagoon (Ukrain). Editors: Ana I. Lillebo - University of Aveiro - Portugal Per Stalnacke - Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Norway Geoffrey D. Gooch - University of Dundee - Scotland - UK Also available as part of your Water Inteligence Online subscription

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Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control

The book presents a comprehensive up-to-date survey of wetland design techniques and operational experience from treatment wetlands. This book is the first and only global synthesis of information related to constructed treatment wetlands. Types of constructed wetlands, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth. History of the use of constructed wetlands and case studies from various parts of the world are included as well. Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control will be indispensable for wastewater treatment researchers and designers, decision makers in public authorities, wetland engineers, environmentalists and landscape ecologists.

Scientific and Technical Report No.8

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More Crop Per Drop More Crop Per Drop

This volume is an analytical summary and a critical synthesis of research at the International Water Management Institute over the past decade under its evolving research paradigm known popularly as 'more crop per drop'. The research synthesized here covers the full range of issues falling in the larger canvas of water-food-health-environment interface. Besides its immediate role in sharing knowledge with the research, donor, and policy communities, this volume also has a larger purpose of promoting a new way of looking at the water issues within the broader development context of food, livelihood, health and environmental challenges.

More crop per drop: Revisiting a research paradigm contrasts the acquired wisdom and fresh thinking on some of the most challenging water issues of our times. It describes new tools, approaches, and methodologies and also illustrates them with practical application both from a global perspective and within the local and regional contexts of Asia and Africa. Since this volume brings together all major research works of IWMI, including an almost exhaustive list of citations, in one single set of pages, it is very valuable not only as a reference material for researchers and students but also as a policy tool for decision-makers and development agencies.

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Water supply & treatment See all

Guide for Small Community Water Suppliers and Local Health Officials on Lead in Drinking Water Guide for Small Community Water Suppliers and Local Health Officials on Lead in Drinking Water

This Guide for Small Community Water Suppliers and Local Health Officials is one of a series produced by the International Water Association's (IWA) Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It is an abbreviated compilation of the wide range of scientific, engineering, health and operational issues concerned with the control of lead in drinking water in small water supply systems.

The IWA Specialist Group is supported by members from 26 European countries, Canada and the United States. It is an active research network and has regularly convened international conferences and seminars. It has close working links with the World Health Organization, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Health Canada and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The IWA Specialist Group developed out of COST Action 637 (www.cost.esf.org), a European research network. The Guide is supported by a two-day technical training course and a more comprehensive Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water (IWA, 2010). Information about training, the Best Practice Guide and the research network in general is available from www.meteau.org. This Guide for Small Community Water Suppliers and Local Health Officials explains why lead in drinking water may still be a threat to public health in small communities. It is aimed at Local Health Officials and the operators of drinking water supply systems that serve small communities. Its objectives are to raise awareness, to provide a basis for assessing the extent of problems, and to identify control options.

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Organic Compounds and Genotoxicity in Drinking Water Organic Compounds and Genotoxicity in Drinking Water

Until recently only lipophilic compounds were analysed in any research on the occurrence of mutanogenic and carcinogenic compounds in water. They were isolated using XAD-resins. They contain approximately half of the total organic material present in water. A clear mutanogenic effect was demonstrated for these compounds using Amestest. The hydrophilic fraction of the organic material was difficult to investigate because of problems with isolation and analysis caused by its high solubility. The high solubility means in practice that the hydrophilic compounds are mobile in conventional treatment systems and in soil and can easily penetrate into drinking water. A method was developed to isolate hydrophilic compounds using a combination of ion exchange and a clean-up with a XAD-resin. The isolated compounds were examined with the Amestest for the presence of mutanogenic compounds. For some tested water types a mutanogenic effect was found in the lipophilic material. Due to oxidation with ozone, mutanogenic compounds can be formed from (non-mutanogenic) industrial pollutions. No mutanogenic activity was found in the hydrophilic organic material of all examined water types, even after ozone oxidation or chlorination. It was hypothesized that hydrophilic compounds can not reach the DNA of the cell, thus they do not play any (geno) toxicological role.

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Scaling Propensity of Water: New Predictive Parameters Scaling Propensity of Water: New Predictive Parameters

The commonly used Saturation Index calculated at 10ºC (SI10) is not suitable for practical situations. New parameters have been: TPCC90 (Theoretically Precipitable Calcium Carbonate at 90ºC)developed for simple and rapid analysis of calcium carbonate precipitation (scaling) phenomena which occur during the heating of drinking water; SI90 (Saturation Index at 90ºC); NI (Nucleation Index); PPCC (Practically Precipitable Calcium Carbonate). Both TPCC90 and SI90 describe the hydrodynamic driven force for the scaling reaction. The nucleation index indicates at what rate calcium carbonate precipitation is accelerated by nuclei present in the water. Finally, the PPCC is a measurement under practical conditions, determining the rate of scaling. The suitability of these parameters for predicting scaling was assessed and detailed results are presented in this publication.

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Water Supply and Sanitation for All Water Supply and Sanitation for All

The supply of healthy drinking water and disposal of our wastewater is a central problem. Solving this problem is one of the claims of the UN Millennium Development Goals, and consequently an obligation for all those involved with water to join efforts in finding solutions. Climate change, population growth, migration and urban sprawl are factors forcing us to reconsider the traditional approach to urban water management. The water supply and sanitation infrastructure currently in use worldwide was developed in and for countries which are relatively wealthy, and which have access to plenty of water. Is it really wise to build the same kind of infrastructure and to apply the same methods and processes in regions with different climatic, ecological and economical conditions? Should we maintain our flush and discharge sanitation concepts while freshwater is becoming a limited resource? Aren't there smarter more environmentally sound methods to use and safegaurd our precious water resources? Are water authorities, city planners, architects, regulators and politicians ready to accept innovative solutions deviating from those described in textbooks? Questions like these were raised during the International Symposium Water Supply and Sanitation for All held in Berching, Germany from September 27 - 28, 2007. This book collects the papers presented at this conference.

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