This book covers the topic of microplastics in water and wastewater. The chapters start with introductory issues related to the growing interest in the scientific community on microplastics and the human water cycle and point out where the microplastics could interact with water. The subsequent chapters examine evidence of the microplastic presence in freshwater, such as in both rivers and lakes, in freshwater biota, and hazardous chemicals associated with microplastics in such systems.

Another set of chapters discuss the presence of microplastics in wastewater: their sources; their transfer through a wastewater treatment plant; the concentration of microplastics in effluents throughout the world; the plastic biomedia used in wastewater treatment plants and the effect on the surrounding environment of effluent wastewater pipes. These chapters also discuss the sampling methods, the sample treatment and analysis techniques used so far for microplastics in wastewater. Additionally, the presence of microplastics in sewage sludge and in soils irrigated with wastewater or fertilized with sludge are discussed. The possible impact of plastics and their additives on plants, microalgae, and humans are reviewed and presented in a critical way. Finally, a chapter summarizes all the relevant regulations and initiatives that point to the necessity of a global directive for the protection of the environment from plastic and microplastic pollution.

The topic of microplastics in freshwater systems and in wastewater has scarcely been studied and requires more attention. Microplastics in Water and Wastewater aims to bring these initial findings to the attention of a broader audience and especially to operators and managers of freshwater and wastewater systems. It will also be helpful to people already aware of the marine debris problem to understand the sources of microplastics in the oceans, from freshwater systems and wastewater treatment plants.

About the Editors 
Preface 
Foreword (Hideshige Takada) 
Foreword (Peter Kershaw)

Chapter 1 - Plastics and microplastics in the human water cycle
K. Katsanou, H. K. Karapanagioti and I. K. Kalavrouziotis

Chapter 2 - Association of hazardous compounds with microplastics in freshwater ecosystems
L. M. Rios Mendoza and M. Balcer

Chapter 3 - Microplastics in wastewater treatment plants: A literature review of sampling methods and results
N. Mourgkogiannis and H. K. Karapanagioti

Chapter 4 - Microplastics: Transport and removal at wastewater treatment plants
S. A. Carr and J. Thompson

Chapter 5 - Method development for microplastic analysis in wastewater
A. Dyachenko, M. Lash and N. Arsem

Chapter 6 - Microplastics in sewage sludge: Captured but released?
A. L. Lusher, R. R. Hurley and C. Vogelsang

Chapter 7 - Modeling microplastics transport and fate in the marine environment around a wastewater effluent discharge pipe
D. P. Korfiatis

Chapter 8 - Evaluating wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics in environmental samples
W. Cowger, A. B. Gray, M. Eriksen, C. Moore and M. Thiel

Chapter 9 - Pollution of beaches and watercourses by plastic biomedia
P. Bencivengo and C. Barreau

Chapter 10 - Effects of microplastics on freshwater and marine microalgae
Merve Tunalı and Orhan Yenigün

Chapter 11 - Possible effects on plants due to microplastics in soils from wastewater effluent reuse or sewage sludge application
D. Papaioannou and I. K. Kalavrouziotis

Chapter 12 - Possible effects of microplastics on human health
E. Sazakli and M. Leotsinidis

Chapter 13 - The need for a global plastic strategy
S. Kordella, H. K. Karapanagioti and G. Papatheodorou

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