The tightening of the bacteriological quality thresholds for bathing water following the revision of the European Directive (Directive 2006/7/CE, 2006) raises a problem for cities or urban communities discharging their treated wastewater into or near ocean bathing areas. The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC) has imposed secondary treatment before discharge, but this generally does not provide the required level of quality to be achieved, therefore, a disinfection process is required. In recent years, the use of different processes such as ozone, UV and peracids (peracetic or performic) has been developed for the disinfection of waters. Whilst the ozone and UV processes have been widely studied, there is a lack of information about chemical disinfection, mostly concerning the mechanisms involved and its eco-toxicological effects.
To make decisions on which technology to implement, stakeholders and operators have to choose without real data and technical information. The purpose of this book is to provide scientific and technical information on the chemical disinfection with Performic acid (PFA).