The case for investment in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been convincingly made. WASH is essential for protecting public health, is a human right and investing in it is compelling from a fiscal and economic point of view. While the estimated $114 billion per year of capital investments required to meet universal access to safely managed water and sanitation services by 2030 is often portrayed as a hefty price tag, current best estimates of benefit-to-cost ratios leave little doubt about its value.
What is less clear is how to allocate resources efficiently. There is limited evidence on the cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of various policy and implementation choices. The underlying drivers of demand for (new) technologies and solutions are, for example, poorly understood, as is beneficiaries’ willingness to pay (WTP), leading to open questions about pricing policies and sustainable business models.
This is in contrast to other infrastructure sectors, such as energy and transport, where active literature on the economics and financing of services has been more helpful in defining national and international policy. Our objective with this book is to encourage the WASH sector to follow suit and start to effectively engage and research these issues.
At the heart of this book therefore, are chapters which highlight some of the specificities, and challenges of conducting full economic evaluations of WASH interventions, provide a deeper understanding of potential solutions, and present new findings on costs and outcome measures, thereby contributing towards a fuller picture of WASH cost-effectiveness.
In Focus – a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Editorial: WASH Economics and Financing: towards a better understanding of costs and benefits
Britta Augsburg and Tristano Sainati
Interaction of village and school latrines on educational outcomes in India
Sanitation dynamics: toilet acquisition and its economic and social implications in rural and urban contexts
Britta Augsburg and Paul Rodríguez-Lesmes
Understanding the costs of urban sanitation: towards a standard costing model
Tristano Sainati, Fiona Zakaria, Giorgio Locatelli, P. Andrew Sleigh and Barbara Evans
Life-cycle costs approach for private piped water service delivery: a study in rural Viet Nam
Melita Grant, Tim Foster, Dao Van Dinh, Juliet Willetts and Georgia Davis
An assessment of penetration for pay-to-fetch water kiosks in rural Ghana using the Huff gravity model
Philip T. Deal and David A. Sabatini
Understanding water demand and usage in Mandalay city, Myanmar as a basis for resetting tariffs
Tanvi Nagpal, Henry Rawlings and Maël Balac
Unpacking piped water consumption subsidies: Who benefits? New evidence from 10 countries
Laura Abramovsky, Luis Andrés, George Joseph, Juan Pablo Rud, Germán Sember and Michael Thibert
Does payment by results work? Lessons from a multi-country WASH programme
Guy Howard and Zach White
Benefits and costs of rural sanitation interventions in Ghana
Mark Radin, Brad Wong, Catherine McManus, Saumitra Sinha, Marc Jeuland, Eugene Larbi, Benedict Tuffuor, Noble Kofi Biscoff and Dale Whittington
Expanding safe fecal sludge management in Kisumu, Kenya: an experimental comparison of latrine pit-emptying services
Rachel Peletz, Andy Feng, Clara MacLeod, Dianne Vernon, Tim Wang, Joan Kones, Caroline Delaire, Salim Haji and Ranjiv Khush
Users are willing to pay for sanitation, but not as much as they say: empirical results and methodological comparisons of willingness to pay for peri-urban sanitation in Lusaka, Zambia using contingent valuation, discrete choice experiments, and hedonic pricing
James B. Tidwell
Climate change has altered hydrologic conditions, which directly affects water resources. In addition, increasing human activities have an impact on water resources, water environment and water...
Hydrology and water resources management in a changing world reflects important challenges for both researchers and practitioners in the public and private sectors. This book features...
Water is life. But water is also a threat to life. During the past decade, the risks from water-related disasters are increasing and hamper sustainable development by causing political, social,...
Increasing urbanization and changing climate are two critical stressors that are adversely affecting the biophysical environment of urban areas in the Hindu Kush Himalaya. The book discusses...
Improving and managing universal services of water and sanitation in a holistic manner is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, and addressing the needs of millions of people...
Groundwater has provided great benefits to agriculture irrigation in semi-arid OECD countries, but its intensive use beyond recharge in certain regions has depleted resources and generated...
The importance of small towns is gaining increased recognition as a result of two developments. The first development concerns the possible role of small towns in migration flows and urbanization...
Water resources systems provide multiple services and, if managed properly, can contribute significantly to social well-being and economic growth. However, extreme or unexpected hydroclimatic...