The pressure on available freshwater resources due to urbanization and climate change impacts is increasing worldwide; so follows the need to explore unconventional resources. Water reuse and desalination are viable options for alternative water supplies, also for regions that had no need to consider these approaches in the past. However, these solutions need to be tailored to local conditions, be balanced against conventional supply options while minimizing any adverse health and environmental impacts. There is increasing interest in developing new planning tools, technological solutions and approaches in this field to foster safe and economically viable water reuse and desalination applications.

The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) realized these needs at an early stage and launched the major funding initiative ‘WavE’ (www.bmbf-wave.de/en) in 2016 entitled ‘Future-oriented Technologies and Concepts to Increase Water Availability by Water Reuse and Desalination’ within the framework program ‘Research for Sustainable Development (FONA)’ and the research agenda on Green Economy. WavE is aimed at developing innovative technologies and management concepts to foster a sustainable increase in water availability. The aim is to provide sustainable solutions for national and international applications.

This book reports research highlights from comprehensive research projects addressing contemporary approaches to evaluate new technologies and concepts in non-potable water reuse applications, multi-barrier concepts for potable and non-potable reuse applications, concepts for industrial reuse and resource recovery approaches for brine streams, as well as onsite desalination technologies for developing communities.

In Focus – a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.

Editorial: Future-oriented technologies and concepts to increase water availability by water reuse and desalination
Jörg E. Drewes

Approaches for the evaluation of future-oriented technologies and concepts in the field of water reuse and desalination
Kristina Wencki, Verena Thöne, Angela Ante, Tobias Hogen, Claudia Hohmann, Felix Tettenborn, Dagmar Pohl, Philipp Preiss and Christina Jungfer

Advanced processed wastewater for different uses: constellations favouring future implementation of a multimodal water reuse concept
Engelbert Schramm, Dennis Becker and Michaela Fischer

Reuse of municipal wastewater for different purposes based on a modular treatment concept
Andreas Nahrstedt, Anil Gaba, Barbara Zimmermann, Timo Jentzsch, Kerstin Kroemer, Yannick Tiemann, Lajos Harsanyi, Patrick Buchta, Uli Doelchow, Jens Lipnizki, Katharina Mende, Thomas Koch and Anja Rohn

Framework conditions to design sustainable business models for decentralised water treatment technologies in Viet Nam for international technology providers
Mona Fritz, Claudia Hohmann and Felix Tettenborn

Assuring water quality along multi-barrier treatment systems for agricultural water reuse
Marius Mohr, Thomas Dockhorn, Jörg E. Drewes, Sybille Karwat, Susanne Lackner, Bryan Lotz, Andreas Nahrstedt, Andreas Nocker, Engelbert Schramm and Martin Zimmermann

Experiences of running a hydroponic system in a pilot scale for resource-efficient water reuse
Alexa Bliedung, Thomas Dockhorn, Jörn Germer, Claudia Mayerl and Marius Mohr

Water reuse in hydroponic systems: a realistic future scenario for Germany? Facts and evidence gained during a transdisciplinary research project
Martina Winker, Michaela Fischer, Alexa Bliedung, Grit Bürgow, Jörn Germer, Marius Mohr, Andreas Nink, Bea Schmitt, Arne Wieland and Thomas Dockhorn

Microbiological changes along a modular wastewater reuse treatment process with a special focus on bacterial regrowth
Andreas Nocker, Lorenz Schulte-Illingheim, Hubert Müller, Anja Rohn, Barbara Zimmermann, Anil Gaba, Andreas Nahrstedt, Hooman Mohammadi, Yannick Tiemann and Kerstin Krömer

In-situ fixed bed denitrification in sequential biofiltration: laboratory testing of solid substrates
Josefine Filter, Christin Bosinsky, Sefine Oksal Kilinc, Aki Sebastian Ruhl and Martin Jekel

Application of a decision support tool for industrial and agricultural water reuse solutions in international case studies
Kristina Wencki, Verena Thöne, Dennis Becker, Kerstin Krömer, Isabelle Sattig, Gunnar Lischeid and Martin Zimmermann

Economic evaluation of different treatment options for water reuse in industrial parks using modular cost functions
Jens Hilbig, Birte Boysen, Philipp Wolfsdorf and Karl-Ulrich Rudolph

Impact assessment of water and nutrient reuse in hydroponic systems using Bayesian Belief Networks
Martin Zimmermann and Michaela Fischer

Brines from industrial water recycling: new ways to resource recovery
Malena Kieselbach, Tobias Hogen, Sven-Uwe Geißen, Thomas Track, Dennis Becker, Hans-Jürgen Rapp, Joachim Koschikowski, Joachim Went, Harald Horn, Florencia Saravia, Annika Bauer, Rebecca Schwantes, Daniel Pfeifle, Nicolas Heyn, Miriam Weissroth and Bernd Fitzke

Sustainable industrial wastewater reuse using ceramic nanofiltration: results from two pilot projects in the oil and gas and the ceramics industries
Matan Beery, Christian Pflieger and Marcus Weyd

Economic and environmental assessment of water reuse in industrial parks: case study based on a Model Industrial Park
Birte Boysen, Jorge Cristóbal, Jens Hilbig, Almut Güldemund, Liselotte Schebek and Karl-Ulrich Rudolph

Sustainability requirements of implementing water-reuse concepts for new industrial park developments in water-stressed regions
S. Bauer, A. Dell, J. Behnisch, H. J. Linke and M. Wagner

Enhancement of overloaded waste stabilization ponds using different pretreatment technologies: a comparative study from Namibia
Jochen Sinn and Susanne Lackner

Modular treatment of arsenic-laden brackish groundwater using solar-powered subsurface arsenic removal (SAR) and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) in Vietnam
U. Hellriegel, E. E. Cañas Kurz, T. V. Luong, J. Bundschuh and J. Hoinkis

Waterminer – a regional spatio-temporal approach to water reuse management in mining areas in Vietnam
S. Greassidis, V. Trinh Quoc, K. Brömme and H. Stolpe

Jörg E. Drewes

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