Landfill Leachate Management


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Publication Date: 15/09/2023

Pages: 496

Binding: Paperback

ISBN13: 9781789063301

eISBN: 9781789063318

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Landfill leachate is a complex mix of organics, inorganics and heavy metals produced from the conventional and engineering landfilling practices. The adverse effects of landfill leachate on the human and environmental health have forced the relevant authorities to stipulate stringent disposal requirements, producing the requirement for ground-breaking technological solutions for effective management of landfill leachate. The researchers and field engineers are still looking for robust options for leachate management. This timely book on landfill leachate management is a valued addition into this domain. The key features of the book include:  broad range of treatment techniques covered, conventional to advanced technological options discussed, along with the inclusion of successful case studies.






Chapter 1: Characteristics of leachate from landfills and dumpsites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America: A review update

Giovanni Vinti, Terry Tudor, Mentore Vaccari

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Materials and Methods

1.3. Results and Discussion

1.3.1. Study Selection

1.3.2. Key types of sites and climatic zones

1.3.3. Leachate quality by site

1.3.4. Leachate quality by region

1.3.5. Pollutant levels by site type

1.3.6. Pollutant levels by region

1.4. Conclusions


Chapter 2. Aerobic treatment of landfill leachate

Kaoutar Aboudi, Ankur Rajpal, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, Ahmed Tawfik

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Aerobic treatment of landfill leachate

2.2.1. Aerated lagoons (AL)

2.2.2. Activated sludge process (ASP)

2.2.3. Sequencing batch reactors (SBR)

2.2.5. Rotating biological contactors (RBC)

2.2.6. Biofilm reactor

2.2.7. Membrane reactors

2.2.8. Constructed wetlands (CWs)

2.2.9. Fungal and yeasts treatment

2.2.10. Phytoremediation

2.3. Conclusions


Chapter 3: Anaerobic treatment of landfill leachate

Ahmed Tawfik, Vinay Kumar Tyagi

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Leachate generation from landfilling of municipal solid wastes and their characteristics

3.3. Biological treatment methods

3.4. Anaerobic treatment process

      3.4.1. Anaerobic technologies

     Anaerobic filters

     Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

     Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket

     Anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor

     Anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactors

     Integrated anaerobic reactors (two stage system)

3.5. Factors affecting anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate

      3.5.1. Effect of temperature

      3.5.2. Effect of reactor operation mode

      3.5.3  Effect of organic loading rate

      3.5.4. Sulfate concentration

      3.5.5. Ammonia concentration

      3.5.6. Carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio

3.6. Concluding remarks



Chapter 4: Microbial fuel cell for landfill leachate treatment

Saurabh Dwivedi, Ashmita Patro, Yamini Mittal, Supriya Gupta, Pratiksha Srivastava

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Pollutant removal mechanism

4.2.1. Biological process for organics/inorganics removal

4.2.2. Leachate toxicity and effects on MFC performance

4.3. Types of MFC for leachate treatment

4.4. Bioelectricity generation from the landfill leachate

                    4.4.1. Electron transfer mechanism in MFCs to treat landfill leachate

4.5. Resource recovery from the leachate

4.5.1. Metal recovery using MFC from leachate

4.5.2. Nutrient recovery

4.5.3. Water recovery

4.6. Recent developments in leachate treatment using MFC

4.7. Conclusion


Chapter 5: Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate

Ankit Singh, Rajesh Roshan Dash

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Landfill leachate

5.2.1 Formation

5.2.2 Composition

5.3 Environmental impact of leachate

5.3.1 Leachate impact on soil

5.3.2 Leachate impact on water

5.3.3 Leachate impact on air

5.3.4 Leachate impact on human health

5.4 Nitrogen removal

5.4.1 Biological treatment Nitrification-denitrification Disadvantages of nitrification-denitrification Nitritation-denitritation Nitritation-endogenous denitritation Anammox

5.4.2 Physical treatment Reverse Osmosis (RO) Disadvantages of RO system Evaporation Disadvantages of evaporation Ammonia stripping Disadvantages of ammonia stripping

5.4.3 Chemical treatment Chemical precipitation Disadvantages of chemical precipitation Adsorption Disadvantages of adsorption Ion exchange Disadvantages of ion exchange Breakpoint chlorination Disadvantages of breakpoint chlorination Electrochemical oxidation (EO) Direct electrochemical oxidation Indirect electrochemical oxidation Mechanism for ammonium nitrogen removal Disadvantages of electrochemical oxidation

5.5 Conclusion and perspectives


Chapter 6 : Constructed wetland for landfill leachate treatment

Sudeep Kumar Mishra, Sanket Dey Chowdhury, Puspendu Bhunia

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Leachate characterization

6.3 Variability in leachate quantity and quality

6.4 Types of constructed wetlands

6.5 Mechanism of leachate treatment in the constructed wetland system

6.6 Application and performance of the CWs in treating landfill leachate

6.6.1 Organic matter

6.6.2 Nitrogen

6.6.3 Total phosphorous and phosphate

6.6.4 Total suspended solids

6.6.5 Heavy metals

6.7 Factors affecting the performance of constructed wetland

6.7.1 Substrate

6.7.2 Macrophyte

6.7.3 Temperature

6.7.4 Hydraulic retention time

6.7.5 Mode of feeding

6.8 Conclusions and future perspectives


Chapter 7: Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with landfill leachate

Hale Ozgun, Ali Izzet Cengiz, Busra Cicekalan, Xuedong Zhang, Mustafa Evren Ersahin

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Strategies Applied for the Improvement of Landfill Leachate Treatment

7.3. Historical Development of Leachate Co-Digestion

7.4. Co-Substrates Used in the Digestion of Leachate

7.5. Co-Digestion of Landfill Leachate and Food Waste

7.5.1. Synergistic Effect and Opportunities

7.5.2. Challenges and obstacles

7.5.3. Applications

7.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives


Chapter 8: Electro-chemical treatment of landfill leachate

Brahim Arhoun, Maria Villen-Guzman, Jose Miguel Rodriguez-Maroto, Juan Manuel Paz- Garcia

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Landfill leachate

8.2.1. Generation and Characteristics of landfill leachate

8.2.2. Landfill leachate treatment

8.3. Electro-oxidation treatment of landfill leachate

8.3.1. Direct electro-oxidation processes

8.3.2. Indirect electro-oxidation processes

              8.3.3. Influence factors of electro-oxidation in the treatment of landfill leachate

                    Anode material

                    Reactor design

              8.3.4. Operating parameters Current density pH Electrolytes

              8.3.5. Electro-oxidation combined with other methods

8.4. Electro-Fenton treatment of landfill leachate

8.4.1. Reaction mechanism of electro-Fenton process

 8.4.2. Operational parameters affecting electro-Fenton process pH Dose of reagents Reagent feed mode Current density Inter-space electrode Cathode material

8.4.3. Combination of Electro-Fenton with other methods

 8.5. Electrocoagulation treatment of landfill leachate

8.5.1. Definition and operating principle

8.5.2. Electrocoagulation reactor design and operation

8.5.3. Operational parameters affecting electrocoagulation process Current density Solution pH Electrode design

                    Inter‑electrode distance Stirring speed Electrical conductivity Temperature Electrolysis Time

8.5.4. Electrocoagulation process combined with other methods




Chapter 9:  Treatment of landfill leachate containing emerging micro-pollutants

Ahmed Tawfik, Vinay Kumar Tyagi

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Sources of emerging micro pollutants in landfill leachate and their health effect

9.3. Types of emerging micro-pollutants

              9.3.1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS)

9.3.2. Pharmaceuticals and plasticizers

9.3.3. Mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and Pesticides

9.3.4. Pharmaceuticals

9.3.5. Personal care products

9.3.6. Micro plastics and phthalate esters

9.4. Treatment processes of landfill leachate

9.4.1. Physic-chemical treatment processes


                    Advanced oxidation process

                    Non-thermal plasma

9.4.2. Biological treatment process

                       Degradation by ligninolytic fungi

                     Constructed wetland system

                   Anaerobic degrading processes

                   Membrane bioreactor (MBR)

9.5. Conclusions



Chapter 10: Application of carbon-based adsorbents for landfill leachate treatment

Rahul Mishra, Sunil Kumar

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Leachate generation and composition

10.3. Landfill leachate characterization methods

10.3.1. Structural analytical methods

10.3.2. Molecular weight-associated techniques

10.3.3. Spectroscopic approaches Spectroscopic approaches Fluorescence spectroscopy UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy

 10.4. Adsorption process for landfill treatment

 10.5. Different types of adsorbents for landfill leachate treatment

10.5.1. Conventional adsorbents

10.5.2. Carbon-based materials Activated carbon Bio-char

                    Graphene oxide

                    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)

10.5.3. Other non-carbon-based materials

 10.6. Conclusion


Chapter 11: Landfill leachate induced ultraviolet quenching substances

Pubali Mandal, Brajesh Kumar Dubey

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sources of ultraviolet quenching substances in landfill leachate

11.3 Properties of ultraviolet quenching substances

11.4 Chemical composition

11.5 Problems associated with UVQs

11.6 Distribution of UVQs in landfill leachate

11.7 Measurement techniques of ultraviolet quenching substances

11.8 Removal of UVQs by different treatment technologies

11.8.1 Biological process

11.8.2 Membrane separation, adsorption, and ion-exchange

11.8.3 Electrochemical process

11.8.4 Chemical oxidation

11.9 Conclusions and perspectives


Chapter 12. Micro-plastics in landfill leachate and its treatment

K.S.D. Premarathna, Sammani Ramanayaka, Thilakshani Atugoda, Madushika Sewwandi, Meththika Vithanage

12.1 Plastics in landfills and leachate

12.2 Occurrence and abundance of microplastics in landfill leachate

12.2.1 Sources and formation of microplastics in landfills

12.2.2 Abundance of microplastics in landfill leachate

12.3. Characteristics of microplastics present in landfill leachate

12.3.1 Size, color, and shape of microplastics

12.3.2 Polymer types

12.4. Migration pathways of microplastics to aquatic ecosystems

12.5. Mitigation and remediation of microplastics

12.5.1 Treatment methods of microplastics in landfill leachate Physical and chemical treatments Biological treatments Land-based treatments

12.5.2 Fate of microplastics in landfill leachate treatment

12.6 Limitations of landfill leachate treatment techniques

12.7 Conclusions and perspectives



Chapter 13 : Separation treatment of landfill leachate

Brahim Arhoun, Juan Manuel Paz-Garcia, Jose Miguel Rodriguez-Maroto, Maria Villen-Guzman

13. 1. Introduction

13.2. Landfill leachate

13.2.1. Generation of Landfill leachate

13.2.2. Composition of landfill leachate

13.3. Landfill leachate treatment

13.4. Membrane separation process

13.4.1. Membrane separation in landfill leachate treatment Micro-filtration Ultra-filtration Nano-filtration Reverse osmosis

13.4.2. Membrane concentrate landfill leachate removal Composition of membrane concentrates (MC) Treatment of membrane concentrates

13.4.3. Membrane fouling

13.5. Conclusions


Chapter 14: Modeling and optimization of hybrid leachate treatment processes and scale-up of the process

Fabiano Luiz Naves, Cristiane Medina Finzi Quintão, Mateus de Souza Amaral, Renata Carolina Zanetti Lofrano, Alexandre Boscaro França, José Izaquiel Santos da Silva, Clarissa Nascimento de Oliveira, Edilailsa Januário de Melo

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Optimization of leachate treatment models

14.3. Proposed optimization Using NBI

14.4. Implementation of NBI in environmental controls

14.5. Sustainable implications in leachate treatment 

14.6. Conclusion



Chapter 15: Energy and resource recovery from landfill leachate

Rickwinder Singh, Apoorva Upadhyay, Prakhar Talwar, Nikita Verma, Vivekanand Vivekanand

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Characterization of landfill leachate

15.3. Resource and energy recovery techniques from landfill leachate

15.3.1. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC):

15.3.2. Nutrition removal

 15.4. Anaerobic digestion of leachate for biogas production

 15.5. Challenges and Future perspectives of energy recovery from landfill leachate

 15.6 Conclusion


Chapter 16: Efficient and economical landfill leachate management with phytoremediation

Anjali Bhagwat, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Material methods

16.2.1. Experimental setup

16.2.2. Determination of growth parameters

16.2.3. Analysis of chlorophyll content

16.2.4. Statistical analysis

16.3. Phytoremediation

16.4. Economic evaluation of phytoremediation with marigold

16.5. Result and discussion

16.5.1. Growth parameters

 16.5.2. Phytoremediation

16.5.3. Economic evaluation

16.5. Conclusion

Conflicts of interests


Authors contribution

Data availability


Chapter 17: Landfill leachate pollution index

Arun Kumar Thalla, Anakha Ambujan, Vijay Kubsad

17.1 Introduction

17.1.1. Hazardous waste in the recent scenario

17.1.2 Disposal Methods for hazardous waste

17.2 Quantification of Pollution using existing Leachate Pollution Index (LPI)

17.2.1 Formulation of the sub-index

17.3. Hazardous Waste Landfill Leachate Pollution Index (HWLLPI) - Need, and Background study

17.3.1 Existing Leachate Pollution Index, not a reasonable choice for quantifying pollution caused by Hazardous Waste Landfill leachate

17.3.2 Background for the formulation of the Hazardous Waste Landfill Leachate Pollution Index

17.4 Hazardous Waste Landfill Leachate Pollution Index - Development of the Index

17.4.1 Screening the Pollutants for inclusion in the index Methods for aggregating the judgments given by experts for each pollutant Method for defuzzification

17.4.2. Deriving Weightage for the Selected Pollutant

17.4.3. Establishing sub-index curves for each pollutant

17.4.4. Aggregation of weights, and the scores

17.4.5. Formulation of Sub- Hazardous Waste Landfill Leachate Pollution Index

17.5 Conclusion


Chapter 18: Prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate

Neelam Gunjyal, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Vinay Kumar Tyagi

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Source of antibiotics and ARGs in landfill

18.2.1. Mentioning the distribution of antibiotics in landfill on the worldwide

18.2.2. Abundance of ARGs and dissemination of ARGs in landfill

18.3. Correlation between antibiotics, antibiotic residue, and heavy metal on ARGs

18.4. Impact of several vital factors to antibiotic concentration and ARGs profile in landfill

18.4.1. Physicochemical factors

18.4.2. Heavy metals

18.4.3. Organic pollutant

18.4.4. Environmental and other social factor

18.5. Effect of leachate quality parameters and landfill age on antibiotic concentration and ARGs

18.6. Impact of antibiotics and ARGs on groundwater and surface water due to the landfill leachate

18.6.1. Occurrence of the antibiotics and ARGs contamination in groundwater

18.6.2. Assessment of the antibiotics and ARGs contamination in groundwater and surface water

18.7. Conclusions


Chapter 19: Aerobic and anaerobic methods of landfill leachate treatment: limitations and advantages

Sandeep Singh, Sandeep K. Malyan, Rajesh Singh, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, Sujata Kashyap

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Aerobic treatment

19.3. Anaerobic treatment

19.4. Constructed wetland

19.5. Conclusion


Chapter 20: Landfill leachate management

Mandeep Singh, Muntjeer Ali, Nehaun, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, Absar Ahmad Kazmi, C.S.P Ojha

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Landfill leachate characterization

20.3. Methods for landfill leachate treatment

20.3.1. Co-treatment with wastewater

20.3.2. Coagulation flocculation

20.3.3. Adsorption

20.3.4. Membrane

20.3.5. Advanced oxidation processes

20.3.6. Bioreactors

20.3.7. Bioremediation

20.3.8. Combined Physical-chemical treatment methods with biological treatment methods

20.3.8. Nitrification and denitrification

20.4. Conclusions



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