This book focuses on climate change and hydrological extremes, i.e. droughts and floods, which are globally important natural hazards with associated costly impacts on society and the environment. Floods and droughts result from the superposition of different processes at various space and time scales: physical processes in the atmosphere, catchments, the river systems, and anthropogenic activities. However, the characteristics of hydrological extremes have been altered due to climate change and variability, such that approaches for their detection, attribution, and the frequency of occurrence need to be revisited as they are no longer stationary processes. For more accurate estimation of hydrological extremes under nonstationary and uncertain conditions, there is a need for holistic assessments. Time–frequency analysis, hydrological modeling, physical-cause analysis, multivariate statistical analysis, and uncertainty analysis are powerful tools for detecting, attributing, and making frequency analysis of nonstationary hydrological extremes in a changing climate. Both nonstationarity and uncertainty of frequency analysis of extreme hydrological events should be integrated to reveal the possible operational alternatives to the assumption of stationarity in hydrological extremes frequency analysis.

In Focus – a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.

Editorial: Hydrological extremes in a changing environment: modeling and attribution analysis
Yanlai Zhou, Cosmo Ngongondo, Nils Roar Sælthun

Design flood estimation with varying record lengths in Norway under stationarity and nonstationarity scenarios
Lei Yan, Lihua Xiong, Gusong Ruan, Mengjie Zhang, Chong-Yu Xu

Decline in net primary productivity caused by severe droughts: evidence from the Pearl River basin in China
Yuliang Zhou, Ping Zhou

Copula-based modeling of hydraulic structures using a nonlinear reservoir model
Qiaofeng Tan, Yunze Mao, Xin Wen, Tian Jin, Ziyu Ding, Zhenni Wang

Hydro-environmental response to the inter-basin water resource development in the middle and lower Han River, China
Junhong Zhang, Liquan Guo, Tao Huang, Dongdong Zhang, Zhimin Deng, Linshuang Liu, Tao Yan

Probabilistic interval estimation of design floods under non-stationary conditions by an integrated approach
Yanlai Zhou, Shenglian Guo, Chong-Yu Xu, Lihua Xiong, Hua Chen, Cosmo Ngongondo, Lu Li

Propagation dynamics and causes of hydrological drought in response to meteorological drought at seasonal timescales
Lan Ma, Qiang Huang, Shengzhi Huang, Dengfeng Liu, Guoyong Leng, Lu Wang, Pei Li

Evaluation of a multisite weather generator on precipitation simulation in the Yangtze river basin
Yu Li, Xin-Min Zeng, Jiali Guo

Improving BP artificial neural network model to predict the SPI in arid regions: a case study in Northern Shaanxi, China
Li Shaoxuan, Xie Jiancang, Yang Xue, Xue Ruihua, Zhao Peiyuan

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