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- Evaluated the forms, solubilities, and bioavailabilities of phosphorus (P) in biosolids, commercial fertilizers, and manures. Data suggests that some biosolids can be managed to reduce undesirable environmental impacts without negatively affecting growth or nutrition of the test crop.
- Collected data that supports the concept that biosolids represent a significantly smaller leaching hazard than manures when land applied.
- Determined the impact of co-application of water treatment residuals (WTRs) can biosolids on phosphorus leaching and plant uptake, and determined that WTRs can mitigate offsite P movement.
- Results facilitate future field testing to determine the impacts of applying biosolids, manures, and fertilizers on phosphorus lability and runoff.