Standard price: £112.00


Available as an ebook:
Please purchase via www.iwaponline.comOpens in new window

Also part of Water Intelligence Online Digital Reference Library

Standard ePrice: £112.00


Purchase ebook

Author(s): T Cromeans

Publication Date: 31/08/2004

Pages: 78

Binding: Paperback

ISBN13: 9781843397229

eISBN: 9781780404295

WERF Report 99-HHE-5UR

OverviewExpand or collapse me

Enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and other enteric viruses can survive wastewater treatment processes, even after chlorination, and are found in the final effluents. 

These viruses can be detected by cell culture techniques with observations for cytopathic effect (CPE). Recently molecular detection of viral nucleic acids has been used. Most viruses found in wastewater are RNA viruses and RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method to detect these single-strand RNA enteric viruses.

This methodology does not distinguish between infectious and non-infectious viruses. Viruses inactivated in the treatment process can be detected but do not pose a public health threat. Methods are needed to quickly distinguish the infectious viruses from inactivated viruses, both of which may be present in effluents. 

In this project we investigated the use of a method that combines cell culture and molecular detection. If a sample contains viruses that replicate in cell culture even without CPE, the proof of replication can be demonstrated by the detection of a replicative form (RF) in cell culture that is only present during replication of infectious RNA viruses. 

Share this page:

The latest from @IWApublishing

Have you seen what we've been up to for ? One more week to access a special free article co… 2 days 12 hours ago
Happy ! All this week you can access a special free article collection and a discount on ke… 2 days 18 hours ago