Over 90% of bacterial biomass exists in the form of biofilms. The ability of bacteria to attach to surfaces and to form biofilms often is an important competitive advantage for them over bacteria...

The Activated Sludge (AS) Process is old technology but is still widely adopted worldwide for its convenience and simplicity: an impressive number (many hundred of thousands) of this kind of...

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is perhaps the most promising and viable of the proposed activated sludge modifications today for the removal of organic carbon and nutrients. In a relatively...

Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) in wastewater treatment systems is now an established and recognised area of technology in the profession.

There are obvious incentives for ICA...

This Report presents information on the current state of knowledge of the origins, occurrence, nature and effects of sewer solids for use by engineers, scientists, administrators and water quality...

Research into the sampling and measurement of odours has developed in a number of sectors, especially the agriculture, food and process industries, with knowledge from each sector being...

The respiration rate of activated sludge has generated much interest, because it is an essential variable in the activated sludge process and provides information on biomass activity and...

The IWA Task Group for Mathematical Modelling of Anaerobic Digestion Processes was created with the aim to produce a generic model and common platform for dynamic simulations of a variety of...

This Scientific and Technical Report (STR) presents the findings of the IWA Task Group on River Water Quality Modelling (RWQM) in a critical evaluation of the current state of the practice in...

The report highlights various types of SBRs, design considerations and procedures, equipment required, and experiences gained from practical applications. This report will help both designers and...

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